Category Archives: Meta

Status update

As some of you may have noticed, posting has been relatively slow lately, so some explanation is probably due. The time taken up by the releases of the Futtachi and Jebiotto albums is part of this, but not the whole picture. One factor has been starting a new job and another has been an unfortunate injury that has left my left hand (hopefully temporarily) paralysed. In addition to those things, there are still more musical projects I have coming up, which I shall be posting about soon, some of which should hopefully work to make this blog a bit more useful. Anyway, I’m still here.

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A bit about Call And Response Records and some polite begging

I touched on this in the introduction to my Top 20 countdown of 2013’s best Japanese music, but let me just explain myself in a bit more detail. When evaluating and reviewing music, I try to be fair to the artists as well as personally honest, and then on top of that, I try to put everything into some sort of context. It’s a balancing act, but it’s a necessary one to try to make, even if it’s not always possible to carry it off perfectly. At the same time I am involved with a lot of different activities in the Japanese indie and underground scenes, including running my own small label, Call And Response Records. As a rule, I don’t write about Call And Response artists as often as and never in the same way I do other bands because obviously my relationship with the band means I’m compromised; however, there’s a paradox there because the fact that I poured so much of my own time, energy and money into these artists is directly down to how much I love them. That time, energy and money both compromises me and stands as testimony to my sincerity (although I realise that sincerity and honesty are by no means the same thing).

Anyway, I’m going to continue posting the usual pieces on new Japanese music, discussions around my other music writing work and musings on classic pop and rock, but I hope you’ll forgive me for getting a bit selfish. My income derives entirely from writing and music (in large part writing about music), and it probably won’t be that surprising to learn that it doesn’t amount to much. Now I’m going to spare you another one of those dreary navel-gazing posts from journalists or music industry types bemoaning how free content on the Web is destroying their industry and rather than resort to begging for donations (which in any case is illegal through PayPal Japan), I hope instead that over the past few years (more than ten years if we count the original site) of writing Clear And Refreshing I’ve enough credit in the bank to ask my readers to indulge me in a bit of self promotion.

While writing my 2013 Top 20 series, I didn’t include any of my own label’s releases because firstly it would have devalued the list, and secondly, I’d in any case have been unable to honestly assess what position they should go in the ranking. So instead, I’d like to separately do a rundown of key Call And Response releases, talking a little about each disc from a personal and involved stance rather than affecting any sort of journalistic distance. Obviously anyone wishing to buy the CD would be doing me, and I humbly suggest also themselves, a huge favour. Most of it will eventually make its way onto iTunes, and I will no doubt be posting suitably caveat- and apology-laden updates whenever that occurs, but the CDs are available now at this very moment.

The response I’ve had to the free Valentine’s compilation I posted on February 14th has been very generous, so if only a few people who enjoyed that album were to buy some of the official releases I’ve put out over the years, it would be a world of help and greatly appreciated. Yes, I know I’m sounding needy; I’ll stop there.

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Analysing overanalysis (WARNING: META)

The phrase “You’re overanalysing this” is one of the most annoying phrases a music journalist can hear, because analysing music is a key part of a music journalist’s job, and so embedded in that statement is the implication that the journalist’s job is useless. Putting aside the question of whether that is indeed the case (there are lots of useless jobs, and music journalists definitely have a strong case for a berth on the Golgafrincham B Ark), let’s just say that, true or not, it’s annoying. But at the risk of overanalysing the idea of overanalysis, I do sometimes wonder “What do you really mean by ‘You’re overanalysing this’?”

Because the same J-Pop and idol fans who are likely to accuse someone like me of overanalysing pop music are people who when I occasionally visit their web forums are engaged in discussions that provoke a very similar “You’re overanalysing this” reaction in me. In this sense, it seems to me that the phrase “You’re overanalysing this” really means something closer to “You’re analysing this in a way that I personally find troubling and/or alienating.”

I think in the case of J-Pop and especially idol music, it comes down to the base assumption that discussion works off. Fan discussions treat as a baseline the idea that idols are real human beings and that what is presented to you is real. They may know that it isn’t really real, but the discussion is carried out within the confines of the narrative. They analyse the lyrics and ask themselves, “What do these lyrics express about the singer’s personality, hopes, dreams, etc.?” in the same way that fans of a TV soap might discuss the characters and their lives. The discussion can get very detailed, picking up on all manner of little effects or elements of the music or other related products. It also irritates me in the same way Wikipedia articles on some anime annoy me, where they start speculating about inconsistencies in a show by saying, “It can be suggested that Character A did this unexplained and illogical thing because of Reason X” when I just want to bang my head against the table and scream, “NO, YOU IDIOT! Character A did this unexplained and illogical thing because the writer did a shitty job!” — the need to explain everything “in-narrative” is a habit of fan culture that draws a lot of brain power into creating tortured explanations for things that have really simple explanations when you step outside of the bubble.

The reason I get the reaction that these people are overanalysing it is I think because this base assumption that these are real people funnels the analysis into areas that I tend to see as irrelevant. My baseline for any discussion of J-Pop or idol music is that everything is artificial and the girls dancing at the front are in many ways the least important element of the whole process. It’s not quite that simple, and you can kind of see with the better artists like Kyary Pamyupamyu, Perfume, Momoiro Clover Z and others that there is some synthesis between the performer and the production, but basically, I tend to discuss it all in terms of the mechanics. To return to the TV show analogy, my approach would be like analysing a drama from the point of view of narrative structure (three acts, mid-point crisis, etc.), genre studies, that sort of thing. The people on screen are characters in a holistic product that has been designed by others, and the actors themselves are simply another aspect of the production. This probably takes a lot of the fun out of it for a lot for fans.

With J-Pop and idol music, these two positions are a bit confused because the character and the actor are the same person. A lot of fan discussion takes this as axiomatic, whereas I treat it more as an actor playing a version of themself (like, say, Jerry Seinfeld or something) while maintaining a separation between the person and the role. In any case, I think the key point isn’t so much that one side or the other is analysing something too much as that the two sides are analysing it using different sets of tools and based on different sets of assumptions. Were I less of a gentleman than I am, I would note at this point that my way is correct and better, but that would be mean, so I shan’t.

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Top 20 Releases of 2012: Afterword

As I said in the intro, this list was framed by my own fluctuating tastes and just what I happened to   have listened to this year. Jesse Ruins are a superb band who released their Dream Analysis EP via Captured tracks last February.I didn’t get a chance to hear it during the course of the year so it couldn’t make the list, but it’s probably a good record.

None-more-Kansai garage-noise extroverts Gezan also released an album that I didn’t get the chance to hear in 2012, but it was apparently good enough for Time Out Tokyo to rate it as one of the year’s best. Goth-Trad is another artist I didn’t get a proper chance to listen to, but many picked up. It features in the Time Out Tokyo list as well as Make Believe Melodies’ 2012 album roundup (along with other buzzed-about artists I still haven’t heard, like Taquwami)

And then there are albums that missed out on my Top 20 but which might have made it on another day. Sekaitekina Band’s debut album was good but I went for Underrated instead because I felt the musical development that had gone on between the two records instantly outdated the earlier release. Also there was a new album by capsule, Stereo Worxx, which had some very good stuff on it, but which by the end of the year I’d found I wasn’t really listening to.

I’m not going to do a “Top Tracks of 2012” series since most of my favourite tracks, especially in the indie and alternative spheres, are contained within the albums I’ve just written about, but there are a few excellent mainstream-ish pop tunes I’d like to flag up (all by girl groups, natch). As well as the Kyary Pamyu Pamyu album and the aforementioned capsule, Perfume’s Spending All My Time was really good.

Idol group Dempa Gumi inc.’s awesome, hyperactive cover of The Beastie Boys’ Sabotage is also worth revisiting, especially after having seen them perform it live last weekend.

Also, Korean girl group 2NE1’s I Love You was a great example of pop at the more sophisticated extreme.

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What I Talk About When I Talk About Music (Warning: Meta)

As a general rule I try to avoid these types of meta posts, and I mostly think I’ve laid out the basics of what I’m doing with this blog on the About page (with my JT stuff I have a slightly different approach, but it’s basically similar). Still, I think there’s some value in going in a little bit more detail into exactly what I think music writing is for and why I do it.

Typically I’ve always considered there to be three basic functions that it’s the purpose of music writing to address. Really though, there is a fourth that I’ve always considered so obvious as to not be worth mentioning but which probably does need to be stated clearly because it’s actually if anything the thorniest of the bunch.

1. Introduce new music

This is probably the simplest and most straightforward of all the roles. It might mean new songs by established artists, newly emerging artists that I think are worth paying attention to, underground artists who have been around for a while but who have received little attention, or old artists that may have been forgotten or who I have simply discovered for myself recently (although in this last case, I’d be more likely to combine this role with Reason 3).

This is an important job for music writers and bloggers, and it’s by far the main purpose of blogs like my colleague Patrick who writes regularly on the excellent Make Believe Melodies. In this, the blog combines the role of filter, singling out what’s interesting, hunter, seeking out and discovering new music, and news service, informing people of new releases. The filtering role is of course subjective, since the writer/blogger, if they are doing their job properly, is applying their critical faculties in deciding what’s worth featuring and what isn’t — anything else is just PR and could be just as easily handled by a piece of software designed to seek out certain keywords. People are always going to be able to say, “Hey, you wrote about this band, but you should write about this band!” to which all you can really say is, “So get your own blog and write about them!”

2. Keep musicians on their toes

This is something that is a function more of music writing as a broad spectrum than individual writers. As a writer, if I say the new single by, say, Kana Nishino is rubbish, I wouldn’t expect Nishino or Sony to even know, let alone care. Collectively though, music journalists have a duty to express their opinions honestly as to the quality of the music they write about and thus act as a counterweight to the marketing and media manipulation strategies of labels and talent agencies.

Critical and commercial success are clearly different things, and music writers are likely to emphasise different qualities to those that sales figures will reward. Unless you are a pure market fundamentalist, you would I think have to agree that an alternate model of success to that measured by groups like Oricon and Billboard is at least beneficial to the diversity of music.

It’s easy to snipe at music writers as being elitists (we are — the moment you set yourself up as a critical arbiter of any art, you are being an elitist), but I only see that being a problem if you think readers and music fans are stupid and unable to make their own decisions. If I say Kana Nishino’s new song is rubbish, then knowing what you can glean from my words of me and my taste, you will be well placed to know whether to ignore me or listen to me.

The flipside of that is that as a writer you have a responsibility to consider what the musician’s intentions were and to balance your own subjective judgment (including perhaps what their intentions should have been) against how successful they have been in achieving their own aims. Kana Nishino’s aim with any new material is probably not to push forward the boundaries of minimalist electronic art-noise, so judging her purely on those characteristics is pointless and self-defeating. On the other hand, it’s legitimate to say that her pursuit of middle-of-the-road R&B/J-Pop is retreading already familiar ground and that both she and the Japanese music scene would be better off if she directed her talents towards other things. A writer should feel able to say pretty much whatever they like about big acts — they live in a bubble, judged entirely on numbers shifted and product endorsement gigs gained and I think it’s right to hold them to higher critical standards than indie or underground acts — but they should at least be aware of their position and what their music is for.

With smaller artists, the influence of individual writers becomes more pronounced, and there is actually the chance that they might be aware of what is being said about them. This is perhaps the source of the protective fan instinct that causes mass rage against critics who give bad reviews to their favourite acts, but it’s misguided. In these situations, it’s important to understand that the writer’s job isn’t to tell artists what to do so much as to make them conscious of how their own work is being listened to. Even if they disagree with the critic, they are at least pushed to think about what they are doing and keep their goals and craftsmanship under constant reassessment.

With really small acts, this is where writers should exercise the most care. Slagging off a completely unknown band is like kicking a baby, and in the case that a new band does something awful, it’s probably best to just ignore it. Criticism is valuable but should be couched in more positive terms. These bands often don’t have professional guidance from producers, managers etc. and they are eager for feedback from people outside their small group of fans, so a writer can play a valuable role in suggesting areas they could improve and singling out aspects that work. Make fun of the sillier aspects of what they’re doing by all means, but balance it against constructive remarks. Don’t be a dick.

3. Put music in context

This could mean simply pointing out that A is influenced by or fits into the tradition of B — placing the artist in their immediate musical context — but it might also mean taking a step beyond and analysing the music in its cultural and social context too. For example, the only way to write interestingly about AKB48 is to analyse their position as a social/pop cultural/marketing phenomenon.

Fans often hate seeing their favourite artists put in context like this, seeing it as pigeon-holing and reductive. If art touches you in a personal way, you don’t want some know-it-all elitist music snob casually dropping it into a cultural trend that encompasses millions of people because it diminishes the significance of your own feelings. Nevertheless, music is part of culture, and it’s pretentious and stupid to think music doesn’t relate to other music. Thinking about music in a wider context can sometimes open your ears to new ways of listening to it and help you relate to it in an entirely different way.

Thinking about old music can be very helpful here too, since it can indicate changing trends and reflect social attitudes over time, highlight things that music has gained and lost, and indicate where it might go in the future. Again, this is often unpopular with fans of certain types of music because it points the the essentially transient nature of the music they love. To them, all I can say is, “Hard cheese”.

Comparisons between music in different countries is more problematic because it requires certain simplifications, generalisations and stereotypes about cultures, but there are occasions where it can be useful. Looking at Japanese and Korean pop in parallel is one case where I think it’s perfectly valid since the two are similar and interrelated enough that the differences are meaningful in terms of image, what they say about gender and sexuality, production style and economics. A comparison between the music scenes of London and New York might be another, or a comparison between local music scenes of different Japanese urban areas (Kansai/Tokyo, Fukuoka/Nagoya etc.) In other cases comparisons may become more tenuous and you’d need to set strict parameters to any comparisons you wanted to make, but people who say that all comparisons are instantly invalid are just being petulant children.

4. Be entertaining

This is obvious in a way, but it’s also difficult, since entertainment depends on pushing buttons that aren’t going to be the same in everyone. Some people are turned off and even outright offended by stark criticism of musicians they like, or sometimes of any music at all, which they see as mean, bullying behaviour. Obviously I think this is silly, oversensitive nonsense, and my experience of musicians themselves is that having been far more thoroughly divested of any romantic notions of their own music by their own intimate involvement in the nuts and bolts of the creative process, they’re rather more thick-skinned than their fans most of the time. In any case, a writer isn’t going to please every reader and a reader isn’t going to get on with every writer.

In my own writing, I get enough complaints from readers that I can pick up patterns. They may pick on different things: individual comments, or try to frame it as my lack of something called “objectivity”, my not being a “real fan” or my opinions being “uninformed”; but when pressed, it always comes down to the same criticism: “I don’t like your tone” — the rest is usually just an elaborate game of Gotcha. The trouble is, that the praise I get often falls along similar lines: people who said I absolutely nailed what they were thinking or that even though they disagreed with me, it made them spit out their coffee laughing — largely down to tone. Tone is important, and cuts to the core of what makes writing entertaining or not to a reader.

Being entertaining could mean simply being informative and knowledgeable. It could mean being friendly, approachable and speaking the language of the fan group your writing is targetted towards, it could mean being funny. What’s friendly and approachable to one reader could seem cloying and sycophantic to another, what’s funny to one person could seem cruel or facetious to another. From my own point of view, I look for an individual authorial voice in the writing I enjoy most, combined with a willingness to take a strong position and argue it without equivocating. One of my favourite music reviews ever was an NME review of Stereolab in (I think) the late 90s that opened with the line, “You have to admit they’re good at what they do, but then so was Hitler,” and went on to give the album 0/10. Stereolab are one of my favourite bands of all time, but I still love that review even as I disagree with every single word of it, because it’s very successful at conveying the writer’s own feelings for the album in a funny, entertainingly written way.

As a writer, you’re often wearing a mask, and being entertaining often means playing an exaggerated caricature of yourself, honing what are often opinions frought with niggling inconsistencies into pieces of prose that present a clear, easily graspable point of view. In other cases, ambivalence itself might become the point of the piece, but there is nearly always some form of performance that’s taking place. The writer who plays at being the friendly, approachable, gentle-mannered sort is often furiously editing and softening their opinions pre-publication to avoid offending their readers, while the writer who takes the strident, aggressive position is often carefully sanding down all the “Yeah, buts” to better play the antihero or pantomime villain they wish to appear as. I said at the beginning that a writer should be honest, but honest is not the same as saying every single thing you think, no matter how muddled and contradictory. You must also communicate, and communication only works with an audience tuned to your frequency. Not everyone will be.

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Après moi, le déluge!

I’ve been off the grid rather these last couple of months but I’ve not been inactive. There are several Japan Times pieces that I’ll be linking up and adding comments to over the next week or so. I’ve also recorded an album with my band Trinitron that’s now being mixed, put together an ace (if I say so myself) compilation of Japanese postpunk, new wave and alternative music that’s now being pressed and is due out next month, worked on a couple of fiction writing and illustration projects, and been very busy DJing and organising this year’s Koenji Pop Festival. Anyway, I’m back now, so I’ll be working gradually through my backlog. Some excellent albums have been buzzing away on my iPod so I’ll try to mention them all, even if the comments might be a bit shorter than I would have liked, so expect a deluge of new stuff.

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Clear And Refreshing Archive

I’m planning to move my music blogging activity from the old, antique Clear And Refreshing site over to here, and will endeavour to move the domain name too if and when that proves possible. The old blog should remain in archive form at this location.

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